Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) can end up being a perennial Labiatae regarding the
Mediterranean region, which in turn may be used for centuries as spice, home
remedy, drug, perfume along with insectiside. Throughout Medicine, it can always be used as
antispasmolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, secrotolytic, expectorant,
antiseptic, anthelmintic and also antitusive as reported by simply some other authors
. Thymol and also carvacrol constituted the key phenolic compound of
Thyme oil. Your main nonphenolic compounds had been linalool and also p-cymene
. Thyme oil with high thymol content material strongly inhibited the
bacterial growth. Also, thymol gets the higher activity against fungi,
followed through carvacrol and also geraniol, however linalool, terpineol along with thujone
exhibited the least effect . The Particular market demand for thyme is actually rather
high, y early estimates operating in concerning 500 tonnes throughout USA along with 1000
tonnes inside Europe. Owing to end up being able to a general popularity of the use of natural
substances instead of synthetic compounds, a rise in that demand is
predictable . The Actual yield of plant material, the particular essential oil content
and quantitative composition associated with T. vulgaris may be influenced by harvest
time, ecological along with climatical conditions [10,23]. That has been reported
that any pretty tight correlation exists involving the soil kind and the
chemotypic structure with the thyme population expanding about it. where the
soil type varies, distinct distinctions among chemotypes may be found
over several metres. To Always Be Able To optimize yield regarding commercial essential oil, most
growers use substantial planting densities with over 6 to become able to ten plants/[m.sup.2] < br>
for annual crops but not with regard to biennial crops . Substantial plant density may
increase relative humidity inside the particular canopy as well as boost the duration
of leaf wetness by simply reducing air movement and also sun mild penetration
[9,27]. Thus, plant density could get significant impact on plant
disease incidence . Numerous studies happen to be conducted on the effect
of plant density in essential oil inside medicinal plants [24,21,26,29]. The
relationship between crucial oil along with sowing date provides not been
established. Early planting boosts the total length of your time in which the
plant can be in the field as well as exposed to the environment as well as also, it is
associated along with increased incidences of various diseases . Thus,
early planting increases the probability of unfavorable consequences,
including the top quality of the important o il. Numerous research has been
conducted on the impact associated with sowing date on crucial oil within medicinal
plants [13,29]. Your goals involving this research had been to end up being able to describe
relationships among sowing date and also planting density about essential oil
yield and locate out the actual optimum sowing date and planting density for
thyme crucial oil with Iran.
Materials as well as methods
This research ended up being carried in Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Qods
Branch, Tehran, Iran during 2010-2011. Your field experiment was carried
out in a split plot, randomized complete block style along with four
replications in an region associated with 1800 [m.sup.2]. the primary aspect has been sowing
date (20 April, 5 May, 10 Might and 15 May) and the sub factor was
planting density (10, 30, 50 and also 70 plants/[m.sup.2]). Nitrogen
fertilizer had been extr a twice; first, 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] urea at the stem
elongation stage and also 50 kg ha-1 urea from the beginning involving flowering
stage. Furthermore 50 kg ha-1 potash ([K.sub.2]O) and phosphorus (triple super
phosphate) fertilizers were applied from cultivation period respectively. At
the maturity, we collected 10 plants coming from each and also every plot randomly for
determination of plant features along with selected one hundred g flowering shoot dry
matter with regard to determination involving essential oil percentage through Clevenger.
Finally, important oil yield had been decided making use of the particular formula by
Aliabadi Farahani et al. :
Essential oil yield = essential oil percentage x Flowering shoot
Data were subjected to analysis involving variance (ANOVA) using
Statistical Analysis System (Spss) software applications in P < 0.05.
Results as well as discasion
< br>It could be resulted that will planting date significantly decreased
biomass, (P [less when compared with or equal to] 0.01) (Table 1). Throughout such which the
highest dry matter is due SD1 (914.1 kg/ha) and the lowest amount
related to SD4 (417.3 kg/ha) (Table 2). Production regarding total dry matter
is thanks SD3 and SD4 (729.28 along with 723.4) (Table 2). Highest refreshing weight,
branches quantities and plant height had been achieved below SD1 inside 1st and
second cut (Table 1, 2). Also, clean weight, branches numbers and plant
height growing simply by elevated planting density throughout very first cut (Table 1).
But inside 2nd cut decreased clean weight, branches figures and plant by
increasing planting density (Table 2). Your highest crucial oil yield
were achieved under SD1 and PD1 during 2nd cut (Table 3).
In a study, the effects of planting some time and plant density on
flower yield along with active substance associated with chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla
L.) were investigated. The Particular therapies were 3 planting times (5, 15
and 25 March) along with 3 plant densities (50 x 20, 50 x 30 as well as 50 x 40
cm). The Actual results showed that, highest variety of flower for each plant, fresh
flower per plant, dried flower for each plant, clean flower yield, dried
flower yield, important oil yield, chamazulene percentage and
chamazulene yield had been obtained through the 1st planting moment (5 March).
Also, the highest number of flower, refreshing flower per plant and dried
flower per plant had been obtained from the lowest plant density (50 x 40 cm).
The highest refreshing flower yield, dried flower yield, crucial oil yield
and chamazulene yield were obtained through the highest plant density (50 x
20 cm). So, according for the results of this investigati on, your highest
yield has been obtained by the earliest sowing as well as the highest plant density
. Also, the actual highest root yield ended up being achieved by simply optimal plant density
(8 plants/[m.sup.2]), simply because photosynthesis increases through development of
leaves areas and raises essential oil yield. The Particular plant density of red
chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) was studied in a field
in Linares, south central Chile. four as well as 5 plants/[m.sup.2] were
established, using a single or perhaps a double planting line/row. the distance
between rows has been 0.60 m. the treatments had been 60000, 80000, 130000 and
170000 plants/ha. the typical total clean weight/plant, the actual marketable
fresh weight/plant along with head size had been higher with the lower plant density.
The total yield had been higher at the remedy together with 4 plants/[m.sup.2] and
a double planting line/row. the highest marketable and also export quality
yield has been obtained with most the treatment method 4 plants/[m.sup.2], single
planting line/row. The Actual lowest marketable yield was observed in the
highest plant density treatment. the critical plant density had been 0.2 m
with the single row . Substantial plant density elevated essential oil yield
of sweet annie  along with cumin . About one other hand, if plant density
is too high, there is reduce within the option of resources per
plant in the period involving time associated with flowering stem production. This kind of might result in a
marked fall in yield per plant that's certainly not offset by the boost in the
number involving plants. high plant density could improve r elative humidity
within the particular canopy and also boost your duration regarding leaf wetness simply by reducing
air movement and also sun mild penetration.
The plant increased its shoot for increase associated with assimilation matters
by boost associated with refulgence absorb regarding compensation regarding low density throughout this
condition. Therefore, there is increased root length below planting
density involving 12 plants/[m.sup.2]. two experiments had been conducted in
Southern Italy together with two cultivars involving chicory, like 'Cicoria da
foglie' (leaf chicory) as well as "Cicoria di Galatina"
("asparagus chicory") grown from three plant densities (11.1,
5.6 as well as 3.7 plants/[m.sup.2]). From maturity, the particular aerial section of the plant
was excised. Using your closest spacing in the course of the 2nd 12 months a high seed
yield, stems for each plant along with g ermination percentage were noticed. Leaving
the plants in situ resulted in a faster germination, even even though the excised
plants confirmed a reduction in seed yield, seed for each plant, thousand seed
weight, plant height along with variety of stems for each plant . Sowing date is
very essential aspect for increasing grain yield that is closely
related to the growth duration. The Particular environment in the particular program of seed development
is a new major determinant associated with seed quality, especially seed vigour .
Greven et al.  suggested that any lower air temperature in your program of seed
maturation increases the duration of seed growth, that enabled seeds to
be much better organised in the cellular level. Adam et al.  demonstrated
the impact in which duration of sowing may have got upon soybean seed quality, when
they discovered that hotter environmental conditions were related with
lower top quality involving harvested seeds. Ahmed and also Haque  studied the particular effect
of sowing date (November 1, November 20, December ten and also December 30) on
the yield associated with black cumin (Nigella sativa) inside Bangladesh, that they discovered that
early sowing (November 1) ended up being your best for higher seed yield involving black
cumin. Shortening with the growing cycle decreased your quantity regarding radiation
intercepted throughout the expanding season and therefore total dry weight of plant
. Using delayed sowing, development can be accelerated since the crops
encounter higher temperatures during the vegetative growth .
Ehteramian  reported that delayed sowing date ended up being far better since of
the occurrence, resulting to always be able to absence sudden winter chilling. Delayed sowing
date decreases seed excess weight as well as the num ber of umbrella per plant.
El-Gengai and also Abdallah  and Bianco et al.  reported significant
effect of sowing date along with plant density on seed yield involving fennel
(Foeniculum vulgar Mill.). Throughout other studies [5,12,25,28] confirmed that
plant population had significant effect about yield components. Under
optimum plant density, plants display effective use of obtainable water,
light and also nutrient although beneath high plant density, and use a higher
competition among plants.
[1.] Adam, N.M., M.B. McDonald, P.R. Henderlong, 1989. The
influence of seed position, planting along with harvesting dates in soybean
seed quality. Seed Sci. Technol., 17: 143-153.
[2.] Ahmed, N.U., K.R. Haque, 1986. Impact regarding row spacing as well as time
of sowing on the yield associated with black cumin (Nigella sativa L.). Bangladesh.
J. Agric., 1: 21-4.
[3.] Aliabadi Farahani, H., M.H. Lebaschi, A. Hamidi, 2008. Effects
of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, phosphorus and also water strain about quantity
and quality characteristics regarding coriander. J. Adv. Natur. Appl. Sci.,
[4.] Andrade, F.H., 1995. Analasis involving growth and yield regarding maize,
soybean grown in Balcare, Argentina. Area Crop Res., 41: 1-12.
[5.] Angadi, S.V., H.W. Cutforth, B.G. McConkey, Y. Gan, 2003.
Yield adjustment by canola grown from various plant populations under
semiarid conditions. Crop Sci., 43: 1358-66.
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density and crowing cutting on yield and top quality of Florence fennel
seed. International Symposium upon Agrotechnics along with Storage of Vegetative
and Ornamental Seeds. Bari, Italy.
[7.] Bouchberg, G.M., J. Allegrini, 1976. Parfumi Aromi, Saponi,
Cosmet Aerosol, Essenze, 58(10): 527.
[8.] Broucke, C.V.D., 1983. The Particular Therapeutic of Thymus species.
Fitoterapia, 4: 171-174.
[9.] Burdon, J.J., G.A. Chilvers, 1982. Host density like a aspect in
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[10.] Cabo, J., M.E. Crespo, J. Jimenez, C. Navarro, S. Risco,
1982. Seasonal variation associated with essential oil yield along with composition of
Thymus hyemalis Planta Medica, 380-382.
[11.] Carrasco, G., C. Carmona, C. Sandoval, M. Urrestarazu, 1998.
Plant density in yield regarding red chicory heads--Radiccio rosso--(Cychorium
intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) grown in southcentral Chile. Acta
Hortic., 467: 269-275.
[12.] Carr, P.M., R.D. Horsley, W.W. Poland, 2003. Tillage and
seeding charge effects upon wheat cultivars: II. Yield components. Crop
Sci., 43: 210-8.
[13.] Carrubba, A., A. la Torre, I. Calabrese, 2002. Cultivation
trials regarding coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) in a semi-arid Mediterranean
environment. Inside Medicinal and aromatic plants-Possibilities and
limitations involving medicinal and also aromatic plant production within the 21st
century, Proc. Int. Conf. Budapest. 8-11 July (2001). Acta Hortic., 576:
[14.] Castillo, A.G., J.G. Hampton, P. Coolbear, 1994. effect of
sowing date along with harvest timing upon seed vigour inside garden pea (Pisum
sativum L.). New Zealand J. Crop. Hort. Sci., 22: 91-95.
[15.] Damato, G., V.A. Biaco, M. Laterza, 1994. First result of
plant density along with nitrogen price upon yield superiority Florence fennel
(Foeniculum vulgar Mill. Var. Azotericum Thell.) seeds. Inte rnational
Symposium upon Agrotechnics along with Storage associated with Vegetative and Ornamental
Seeds. Bari, Italy. July.
[16.] Douglas, J.A., M.H. Douglas, J.M. Follett, A.J. Heaney, 1996.
The effect associated with plant density about the production of Valerian root. Acta
Hortic., 426: 375-379.
[17.] Ehteramian, K., 2003. the effects of numerous ranges of
nitrogen fertilizer as well as plant dating upon Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in
Kooshkak region within the Fars province. Master of Science Thesis regarding arid
area management. Shiraz Univ., Shiraz., Iran.
[18.] El-Gengai, S., N. Abdallah, 1978. The Actual impact involving date of
sowing along with plant spacing about yield associated with seed and also volatile oil regarding fennel
(Foeniculum vulgar Mill.). Pharmazie, 9: 605-6.
[19.] Greven, M.M., B.A. McKenzie, G.D. Hill, 1997. The Particular influence
of tensio n on yield, abortion along with seed size of French dwarf beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Proc. Agron. Soc. New Zealand, 27: 101-108.
[20.] Hadj Seyed, M. Hadi, G. Noormohammadi, J.M. Sinaki, N.
Khodabandeh, N. Yasa, M.T. Darzi, 2004. effects of planting time and
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Study of the effects of N fertilization as well as plant density on the
essential oil composition and yield of Cuminum cyminum L. seeds by
HS-SME. Chromatographia, 67(3): 253-257.
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Act. Agro. Hun., 49(1): 75-81.
(1) Payam Moaveni, (2) Hossein Aliabadi Farahani along with (2) Kasra
(1) Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran.
(2) Member involving young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University,
Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran.
Kasra Maroufi, Member associated w ith Younger Researchers Club, Islamic Azad
University, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran. Email:
Table 1: Imply comparison involving main sowing date and various planting
density throughout 1st cut.
Treatment Total biomass Refreshing excess weight Branches Plant height
kg /ha gr /Plant range (cm)
Sd1 914.1a 64.1ab 26.1a 27.4a
Sd2 813.0b 68.2a 23.2a 26.3a
Sd3 88.28c 44.5c 18.4b 15.2b
Sd4 417.3d 30.3d 17.1b 14.4c
Pd1 683.2b 48.9c 24.1a 15.0b
Pd2 696.7b 39.8d 22.1a 16.7b
Pd3 729.28a 64.2a 22.3a 24.3a
Pd4 723.4a 51.3b 13.3b 27.3a
Means inside t he identical column and rows as well as factors followed by same
letter are not significantly difference (P: < 0.05).
Table 2: mean comparison involving principal sowing date and various planting
density throughout 2nd cut.
Treatment Total biomass fresh excess weight Branches Plant height
kg /ha gr /Plant quantity (cm)
Sd1 1005.2a 74.2a 33.4a 35.3a
Sd2 879.1b 70.1a 35.1 33.4a
Sd3 799.2c 59.2b 24.2b 32.1a
Sd4 605.4d 40.3c 15.6c 37a
Pd1 943.3a 73.4a 29.9a 41.5a
Pd2 864.1ab 63.2ab 27.3a 38.2ab
Pd3 840.2ab 5 8.6c 27.8a 28.4c
Pd4 641.3c 48.6d 23.3ab 30.2bc
Means inside the same column and rows along with aspects followed by same
letter aren't significantly distinction (P:< 0.05).
Table 3: Impact of different sowing date along with planting density upon the
main constituents regarding important oil % involving thyme in the particular program of 2nd cut.
Sd1 Sd2 Sd3 Sd4 Pd1 Pd2 Pd3 Pd4
Linalool 4.8 4.6 3.3 3.1 4.3 4.01 3.9 3.5
Terpinol 2.7 2.4 1.7 1.6 2.3 2.2 two 1.9
Thymol 53.1 50.2 43.2 40.1 54 51.1 41.4 40.1
carvacrol 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.4 1.09 1.01 0.6 0.4