Rabu, 03 Mei 2017

Effects of sowing date and planting density on quantity and quality features in thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).


Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) can end up being a perennial Labiatae regarding the

Mediterranean region, which in turn may be used for centuries as spice, home

remedy, drug, perfume along with insectiside. Throughout Medicine, it can always be used as

antispasmolytic, antibacterial, antifungal, secrotolytic, expectorant,

antiseptic, anthelmintic and also antitusive as reported by simply some other authors

[7]. Thymol and also carvacrol constituted the key phenolic compound of

Thyme oil. Your main nonphenolic compounds had been linalool and also p-cymene

[22]. Thyme oil with high thymol content material strongly inhibited the

bacterial growth. Also, thymol gets the higher activity against fungi,

followed through carvacrol and also geraniol, however linalool, terpineol along with thujone

exhibited the least effect [8]. The Particular market demand for thyme is actually rather

high, y early estimates operating in concerning 500 tonnes throughout USA along with 1000

tonnes inside Europe. Owing to end up being able to a general popularity of the use of natural

substances instead of synthetic compounds, a rise in that demand is

predictable [22]. The Actual yield of plant material, the particular essential oil content

and quantitative composition associated with T. vulgaris may be influenced by harvest

time, ecological along with climatical conditions [10,23]. That has been reported

that any pretty tight correlation exists involving the soil kind and the

chemotypic structure with the thyme population expanding about it. where the

soil type varies, distinct distinctions among chemotypes may be found

over several metres. To Always Be Able To optimize yield regarding commercial essential oil, most

growers use substantial planting densities with over 6 to become able to ten plants/[m.sup.2] < br>
for annual crops but not with regard to biennial crops [16]. Substantial plant density may

increase relative humidity inside the particular canopy as well as boost the duration

of leaf wetness by simply reducing air movement and also sun mild penetration

[9,27]. Thus, plant density could get significant impact on plant

disease incidence [9]. Numerous studies happen to be conducted on the effect

of plant density in essential oil inside medicinal plants [24,21,26,29]. The

relationship between crucial oil along with sowing date provides not been

established. Early planting boosts the total length of your time in which the

plant can be in the field as well as exposed to the environment as well as also, it is

associated along with increased incidences of various diseases [8]. Thus,

early planting increases the probability of unfavorable consequences,

including the top quality of the important o il. Numerous research has been

conducted on the impact associated with sowing date on crucial oil within medicinal

plants [13,29]. Your goals involving this research had been to end up being able to describe

relationships among sowing date and also planting density about essential oil

yield and locate out the actual optimum sowing date and planting density for

thyme crucial oil with Iran.

Materials as well as methods

This research ended up being carried in Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Qods

Branch, Tehran, Iran during 2010-2011. Your field experiment was carried

out in a split plot, randomized complete block style along with four

replications in an region associated with 1800 [m.sup.2]. the primary aspect has been sowing

date (20 April, 5 May, 10 Might and 15 May) and the sub factor was

planting density (10, 30, 50 and also 70 plants/[m.sup.2]). Nitrogen

fertilizer had been extr a twice; first, 50 kg [ha.sup.-1] urea at the stem

elongation stage and also 50 kg ha-1 urea from the beginning involving flowering

stage. Furthermore 50 kg ha-1 potash ([K.sub.2]O) and phosphorus (triple super

phosphate) fertilizers were applied from cultivation period respectively. At

the maturity, we collected 10 plants coming from each and also every plot randomly for

determination of plant features along with selected one hundred g flowering shoot dry

matter with regard to determination involving essential oil percentage through Clevenger.

Finally, important oil yield had been decided making use of the particular formula by

Aliabadi Farahani et al. [3]:

Essential oil yield = essential oil percentage x Flowering shoot

Data were subjected to analysis involving variance (ANOVA) using

Statistical Analysis System (Spss) software applications in P < 0.05.

Results as well as discasion
< br>It could be resulted that will planting date significantly decreased

biomass, (P [less when compared with or equal to] 0.01) (Table 1). Throughout such which the

highest dry matter is due SD1 (914.1 kg/ha) and the lowest amount

related to SD4 (417.3 kg/ha) (Table 2). Production regarding total dry matter

is thanks SD3 and SD4 (729.28 along with 723.4) (Table 2). Highest refreshing weight,

branches quantities and plant height had been achieved below SD1 inside 1st and

second cut (Table 1, 2). Also, clean weight, branches numbers and plant

height growing simply by elevated planting density throughout very first cut (Table 1).

But inside 2nd cut decreased clean weight, branches figures and plant by

increasing planting density (Table 2). Your highest crucial oil yield

were achieved under SD1 and PD1 during 2nd cut (Table 3).

In a study, the effects of planting some time and plant density on
flower yield along with active substance associated with chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

L.) were investigated. The Particular therapies were 3 planting times (5, 15

and 25 March) along with 3 plant densities (50 x 20, 50 x 30 as well as 50 x 40

cm). The Actual results showed that, highest variety of flower for each plant, fresh

flower per plant, dried flower for each plant, clean flower yield, dried

flower yield, important oil yield, chamazulene percentage and

chamazulene yield had been obtained through the 1st planting moment (5 March).

Also, the highest number of flower, refreshing flower per plant and dried

flower per plant had been obtained from the lowest plant density (50 x 40 cm).

The highest refreshing flower yield, dried flower yield, crucial oil yield

and chamazulene yield were obtained through the highest plant density (50 x

20 cm). So, according for the results of this investigati on, your highest

yield has been obtained by the earliest sowing as well as the highest plant density

[20]. Also, the actual highest root yield ended up being achieved by simply optimal plant density

(8 plants/[m.sup.2]), simply because photosynthesis increases through development of

leaves areas and raises essential oil yield. The Particular plant density of red

chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum Hegi) was studied in a field

in Linares, south central Chile. four as well as 5 plants/[m.sup.2] were

established, using a single or perhaps a double planting line/row. the distance

between rows has been 0.60 m. the treatments had been 60000, 80000, 130000 and

170000 plants/ha. the typical total clean weight/plant, the actual marketable

fresh weight/plant along with head size had been higher with the lower plant density.

The total yield had been higher at the remedy together with 4 plants/[m.sup.2] and

a double planting line/row. the highest marketable and also export quality

yield has been obtained with most the treatment method 4 plants/[m.sup.2], single

planting line/row. The Actual lowest marketable yield was observed in the

highest plant density treatment. the critical plant density had been 0.2 m

with the single row [11]. Substantial plant density elevated essential oil yield

of sweet annie [24] along with cumin [21]. About one other hand, if plant density

is too high, there is reduce within the option of resources per

plant in the period involving time associated with flowering stem production. This kind of might result in a

marked fall in yield per plant that's certainly not offset by the boost in the

number involving plants. high plant density could improve r elative humidity

within the particular canopy and also boost your duration regarding leaf wetness simply by reducing

air movement and also sun mild penetration.

The plant increased its shoot for increase associated with assimilation matters

by boost associated with refulgence absorb regarding compensation regarding low density throughout this

condition. Therefore, there is increased root length below planting

density involving 12 plants/[m.sup.2]. two experiments had been conducted in

Southern Italy together with two cultivars involving chicory, like 'Cicoria da

foglie' (leaf chicory) as well as "Cicoria di Galatina"

("asparagus chicory") grown from three plant densities (11.1,

5.6 as well as 3.7 plants/[m.sup.2]). From maturity, the particular aerial section of the plant

was excised. Using your closest spacing in the course of the 2nd 12 months a high seed

yield, stems for each plant along with g ermination percentage were noticed. Leaving

the plants in situ resulted in a faster germination, even even though the excised

plants confirmed a reduction in seed yield, seed for each plant, thousand seed

weight, plant height along with variety of stems for each plant [6]. Sowing date is

very essential aspect for increasing grain yield that is closely

related to the growth duration. The Particular environment in the particular program of seed development

is a new major determinant associated with seed quality, especially seed vigour [14].

Greven et al. [19] suggested that any lower air temperature in your program of seed

maturation increases the duration of seed growth, that enabled seeds to

be much better organised in the cellular level. Adam et al. [1] demonstrated

the impact in which duration of sowing may have got upon soybean seed quality, when

they discovered that hotter environmental conditions were related with

lower top quality involving harvested seeds. Ahmed and also Haque [2] studied the particular effect

of sowing date (November 1, November 20, December ten and also December 30) on

the yield associated with black cumin (Nigella sativa) inside Bangladesh, that they discovered that

early sowing (November 1) ended up being your best for higher seed yield involving black

cumin. Shortening with the growing cycle decreased your quantity regarding radiation

intercepted throughout the expanding season and therefore total dry weight of plant

[4]. Using delayed sowing, development can be accelerated since the crops

encounter higher temperatures during the vegetative growth [15].

Ehteramian [17] reported that delayed sowing date ended up being far better since of

the occurrence, resulting to always be able to absence sudden winter chilling. Delayed sowing

date decreases seed excess weight as well as the num ber of umbrella per plant.

El-Gengai and also Abdallah [18] and Bianco et al. [6] reported significant

effect of sowing date along with plant density on seed yield involving fennel

(Foeniculum vulgar Mill.). Throughout other studies [5,12,25,28] confirmed that

plant population had significant effect about yield components. Under

optimum plant density, plants display effective use of obtainable water,

light and also nutrient although beneath high plant density, and use a higher

competition among plants.


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(1) Payam Moaveni, (2) Hossein Aliabadi Farahani along with (2) Kasra


(1) Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran.

(2) Member involving young Researchers Club, Islamic Azad University,

Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran.

Corresponding Author

Kasra Maroufi, Member associated w ith Younger Researchers Club, Islamic Azad

University, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Tehran, Iran. Email:


Table 1: Imply comparison involving main sowing date and various planting

density throughout 1st cut.

Treatment Total biomass Refreshing excess weight Branches Plant height

kg /ha gr /Plant range (cm)

Sd1 914.1a 64.1ab 26.1a 27.4a

Sd2 813.0b 68.2a 23.2a 26.3a

Sd3 88.28c 44.5c 18.4b 15.2b

Sd4 417.3d 30.3d 17.1b 14.4c

Pd1 683.2b 48.9c 24.1a 15.0b

Pd2 696.7b 39.8d 22.1a 16.7b

Pd3 729.28a 64.2a 22.3a 24.3a

Pd4 723.4a 51.3b 13.3b 27.3a

Means inside t he identical column and rows as well as factors followed by same

letter are not significantly difference (P: < 0.05).

Table 2: mean comparison involving principal sowing date and various planting

density throughout 2nd cut.

Treatment Total biomass fresh excess weight Branches Plant height

kg /ha gr /Plant quantity (cm)

Sd1 1005.2a 74.2a 33.4a 35.3a

Sd2 879.1b 70.1a 35.1 33.4a

Sd3 799.2c 59.2b 24.2b 32.1a

Sd4 605.4d 40.3c 15.6c 37a

Pd1 943.3a 73.4a 29.9a 41.5a

Pd2 864.1ab 63.2ab 27.3a 38.2ab

Pd3 840.2ab 5 8.6c 27.8a 28.4c

Pd4 641.3c 48.6d 23.3ab 30.2bc

Means inside the same column and rows along with aspects followed by same

letter aren't significantly distinction (P:< 0.05).

Table 3: Impact of different sowing date along with planting density upon the

main constituents regarding important oil % involving thyme in the particular program of 2nd cut.

Sd1 Sd2 Sd3 Sd4 Pd1 Pd2 Pd3 Pd4

Linalool 4.8 4.6 3.3 3.1 4.3 4.01 3.9 3.5

Terpinol 2.7 2.4 1.7 1.6 2.3 2.2 two 1.9

Thymol 53.1 50.2 43.2 40.1 54 51.1 41.4 40.1

carvacrol 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.4 1.09 1.01 0.6 0.4

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